Epigenetic Influence Of Butyrate Producing Bacteria In Metabolic Syndrome

Autoren:Remely, Marlene; Tesar, Ines; Haslberger, Alexander G.

Bacteria or bacteria-derived metabolites may reverse or change epigenetic regulationpatterns such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, thus altering the expressionof critical genes associated in pathologic processes, for example in metabolic syndrome.Fermentation end products, especially butyrate, have been suggested as bioactivemetabolites influencing epigenetic modifications, either by directly influencing enzymescatalyzing epigenetic modifications, by altering the availability of substrates, or byinteractions with receptors. The most important butyrate producers appear to beFaecalibacterium prausnitzii, belonging to Clostridium cluster IV, and Eubacteriumrectale/Roseburia spp., belonging to Clostridium cluster XIVa of Firmicutes. Both arealso detectable via analysis of the butyryl-CoA: acetate CoA-transferase gene.Butyrate is well known for its epigenetic activity as a histone deacetylase inhibitor inapoptosis and cell arrest, and it may contribute to obesity through anti-inflammatoryeffects. Activities of histone deacetylases and methyl CpG binding proteins may also theninfluence DNA methylation. Our recent study of the methylation status of the FFAR3promoter region in connection with butyrate producers revealed a significant lowermethylation status in obese and type 2 diabetics compared to lean participants. Theseresults revealed a significant correlation between a higher body mass index and lowermethylation% of FFAR3. Biological functions of FFAR3 include the modulation of lipidmetabolism, impact on leptin production, and control of host energy metabolisminfluenced by microbial dysbiosis. An overexpression of FFAR3 receptor was reported toinduce the expression of satiety hormones. However, in obese individuals leptin is nolonger able to contribute to satiety, as a cause of the insensitivity of the cells. Thediversity of the microbiota as well as abundance of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii weresignificantly lower in obese and type 2 diabetic patients. Clostridium cluster IV andClostridium cluster XIVa showed a decreasing trend in type 2 diabetics in comparison toanalysis with the butyryl-CoA: acetate CoA-transferase gene.The GI microbiota composition may contribute to body health by influencingepigenetic regulation of the host. Research provides evidence for butyrate in theprevention/treatment of the chronic low grade inflammation seen in obesity and type 2diabetes. However, current knowledge of nutritional epigenetics is limited, and furtherstudies are needed to better understand the use of bioactive food components formaintaining health and disease prevention through modifiable epigenetic mechanisms.

Anzahl der Seiten:12
Publikationstyp:Beitrag in Buch/Sammelband
Buchtitel:Butyrate: Food Sources, Functions and Health Benefits