Progressive resistance training and protein supplementation increases physical function in institutionalized elderly

Autoren:Oesen, Stefan; Halper, Barbara; Hofmann, Marlene; Bachl, Norbert; Wagner, Karl-Heinz; Wessner, Barbara
Abstrakt:IntroductionVon Haehling et al. [1] showed that 5-13% of 60- to 70-year-old and 11-50% of people over 80 years are affected by sarcopenia. Recent observations proved that resistance training is effective up to old age to mitigate the effects of sarcopenia [2,3]. However, most of the studies applied resistance training performed on weight machines which is not practicable for most of seniors. Therefore, we aimed to capture the effect of resistance training using therabands and own body weight on muscle strength and function in elderly institutionalized persons. Additionally, the effect of dietary supplementation enriched with branched chain amino acids was examined. MethodsThe population of this randomized, observer-blind, controlled intervention study consisted of healthy untrained men (n=14) and women (n=103) aged 83 ±6.0 years. They were distributed randomly but stratified by sex to one of 3 groups [Cognitive training (CT), resistance training (RT), RT+supplement (RTS)]. Supervised RT was performed twice a week. The supplement (FortiFit, Nutricia) was distributed every morning as well as after training. CT was based on activities with coordinative or cognitive tasks. Pre, during (after 3m) and post (6m) intervention functional tests for strength as well as aerobic capacity were assessed. Tests include isokinetic torque measurements of knee extensors - and flexors, isometric handgrip strength, chair-rise test, maximum walking speed and 6min walking test. Repeated measures ANOVA was used for analysis of group-, time- and interaction effects.Results Baseline values didn`t differ in any of the functional parameters. The attendance to training sessions was 71 ± 26.5% and did not differ between groups (p>0.05). We observed a group-, time- and interaction effect in the chair rise test. The RT improved by 17.2% and 20.1%, the RTS by 7.3% and 16.4% after 3 and 6 months whereas CT did not show improvements. Significant time but not group or interaction effects were detected for isokinetic torque measurements, walking speed and 6 min walking test.DiscussionSix months of progressive resistance training with own body weight and therabands is able to improve physical function of the lower limbs as shown by chair rise test. Protein supplementation did not lead to further enhancements. Interestingly, many of the other parameters improved over time regardless of group implying that different types of supervised training and the potential social aspects can lead to improvements in fitness parameters in institutionalized elderly. References[1] von Haehling, S, et al. (2010). J Cachex Sarcopenia Muscle, 1(2), 129-133[2] Peterson, MD, et al. (2010). Ageing Res Rev, 9(3), 226-237[3] Rabelo, HT, et al. (2011). J Strength Cond Res, 25(8), 2298-303
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