Global, regional, and national consumption of animal-source foods between 1990 and 2018

, Victoria Miller, Julia Reedy, Frederick Cudhea, Jianyi Zhang, Peilin Shi, Josh Erndt-Marino, Jennifer Coates, Renata Micha, Patrick Webb, Dariush Mozaffarian, Pamela Abbott, Morteza Abdollahi, Parvin Abedi, Suhad Abumweis, Linda Adair, Mohannad Al Nsour, Nasser Al-Daghri, Nawal Al-Hamad, Suad Al-Hooti, Sameer Al-Zenki, Iftikhar Alam, Jemal H. Ali, Eman Alissa, Simon Anderson, Karim Anzid, Carukshi Arambepola, Mustafa Arici, Joanne Arsenault, Renzo Asciak, Helene E. Barbieri, Noël Barengo, Simon Barquera, Murat Bas, Wulf Becker, Sigrid Beer-Borst, Per Bergman, Lajos Biró, Sesikeran Boindala, Pascal Bovet, Debbie Bradshaw, Noriklil BI Bukhary, Kanitta Bundhamcharoen, Mauricio Caballero, Neville Calleja, Xia Cao, Mario Capanzana, Jan Carmikle, Ibrahim Elmadfa, Jurgen Konig, Alexa Meyer

Background: Diet is a major modifiable risk factor for human health and overall consumption patterns affect planetary health. We aimed to quantify global, regional, and national consumption levels of animal-source foods (ASF) to inform intervention, surveillance, and policy priorities. Methods: Individual-level dietary surveys across 185 countries conducted between 1990 and 2018 were identified, obtained, standardised, and assessed among children and adults, jointly stratified by age, sex, education level, and rural versus urban residence. We included 499 discrete surveys (91·2% nationally or subnationally representative) with data for ASF (unprocessed red meat, processed meat, eggs, seafood, milk, cheese, and yoghurt), comprising 3·8 million individuals from 134 countries representing 95·2% of the world population in 2018. We used Bayesian hierarchical models to account for differences in survey methods and representativeness, time trends, and input data and modelling uncertainty, with five-fold cross-validation. Findings: In 2018, mean global intake per person of unprocessed red meat was 51 g/day (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 48–54; region-specific range 7–114 g/day); 17 countries (23·9% of the world's population) had mean intakes of at least one serving (100 g) per day. Global mean intake of processed meat was 17 g/day (95% UI 15–21 g/day; region-specific range 3–54 g/day); seafood, 28 g/day (27–30 g/day; 12–44 g/day); eggs, 21 g/day (18–24 g/day; 6–35 g/day); milk 88 g/day (84–93 g/day; 45–185 g/day); cheese, 8 g/day (8–10 g/day; 1–34 g/day); and yoghurt, 20 g/day (17–23 g/day; 7–84 g/day). Mean national intakes were at least one serving per day for processed meat (≥50 g/day) in countries representing 6·9% of the global population; for cheese (≥42 g/day) in 2·3%; for eggs (≥55 g/day) in 0·7%; for milk (≥245 g/day) in 0·3%; for seafood (≥100 g/day) in 0·8%; and for yoghurt (≥245 g/day) in less than 0·1%. Among the 25 most populous countries in 2018, total ASF intake was highest in Russia (5·8 servings per day), Germany (3·8 servings per day), and the UK (3·7 servings per day), and lowest in Tanzania (0·9 servings per day) and India (0·7 servings per day). Global and regional intakes of ASF were generally similar by sex. Compared with children, adults generally consumed more unprocessed red meat, seafood and cheese, and less milk; energy-adjusted intakes of other ASF were more similar. Globally, ASF intakes (servings per week) were higher among more-educated versus less-educated adults, with greatest global differences for milk (0·79), eggs (0·47), unprocessed red meat (0·42), cheese (0·28), seafood (0·28), yoghurt (0·22), and processed meat (0·21). This was also true for urban compared to rural areas, with largest global differences (servings per week) for unprocessed red meat (0·47), milk (0·38), and eggs (0·20). Between 1990 and 2018, global intakes (servings per week) increased for unprocessed red meat (1·20), eggs (1·18), milk (0·63), processed meat (0·50), seafood (0·44), and cheese (0·14). Interpretation: Our estimates of ASF consumption identify populations with both lower and higher than optimal intakes. These estimates can inform the targeting of intervention, surveillance, and policy priorities relevant to both human and planetary health. Funding: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and American Heart Association.

Department für Ernährungswissenschaften
Externe Organisation(en)
Tufts University, University of Thessaly, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences (SBMU), Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, The Hashemite University, Eastern Mediterranean Public Health Network, Bacha Khan University, King Saud University, Ministry of health, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, King Abdulaziz University (KAU), University of Manchester, Cadi Ayyad University, University of Colombo, Hacettepe University, University of California, Davis, Florida International University, Instituto Nacional de Salud Publica, Acibadem University, National Institute of Nutrition India, Université de Lausanne, Ministry of Health, Fundación Infant, University of Malta, Food and Nutrition Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Addis Ababa University
The Lancet. Planetary Health
ÖFOS 2012
303009 Ernährungswissenschaften
ASJC Scopus Sachgebiete
Health(social science), Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health, Health policy, Medicine (miscellaneous)
Sustainable Development Goals
SDG 3 – Gesundheit und Wohlergehen
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